“Jun” (郡) was the name of first-level administrative regions in the Western Han Empire, and its subordinate regions were named “Xian” (縣). The administrative governor of a Jun was called “Taishou”(太守), and the commander of a Jun’s army was called “Duwei” (都尉). Both of them were appointed by the imperial government. A Duwei’s salary was lower than a Taishou’s, but a Taishou couldn’t intervene in the work of a Duwei.
Age of Empires
The early Chinese nation was a people who had a lively fancy. In the Warring-States Period, Mo-tse (墨子), the founder of Mohist School, made a bird by wood, and this bird could fly continuously for three days. Liezi (列子), a book which was originally written in the Warring-States Period and rewritten in the Eastern Jin (东晋) Dynasty, said that, a craftsman had once presented a robot actor to Zhou Mu-King (周穆王) in the 10th century B.C..
In 78 BC, there were several weird things in the Western Han Dynasty. People heard a great sound from the south of the Tai Mountain (泰山). They found that, a big stone stood up by itself, and thousands of white crows gathered round. In the Changyi (昌邑) State, a withered tree revived. In the Shanglin Garden (上林苑), a big wizened willow became renascent, too.
Wu Zetian was only one woman emperor of ancient Central Nation. She was born in A.D. 624 in Bing Zhou where was in modern-days Shanxi Province. At the age of 14, she was selected to be a Cairen which was a title of a lower concubine in the period of Tang Tai-Zong who was the second emperor. After the death of Tai-Zong, she became a Buddhist nun according to court rituals. One day Tang Gao-Zong, the son of Tai-Zong, met her in the temple and became enamored of her beauty. So he recalled Wu Zetian and let her be a Zhaoyi. This title was higher than Cairen.
Usually we think that Wu Zetian (武则天) was the only female emperor of ancient China. However, in fact, another woman also addressed herself as the title “Emperor”.
In the long history of China, there were many very touching stories between friends. The story of Fan Shi (范式) and Zhang Shao (张劭) was one of them.
In 209 B.C., Chen Sheng (陈胜) and Wu Guang (吴广), two men who were born in former Chu (楚) State, led many people to rebel against the Qin Empire. Their actions were supported immediately by the people of six former states (Chu 楚, Qi 齐, Yan 燕, Zhao 赵, Wei 魏 and Han 韩) , and the fire of rebellions was burning everywhere except the original area of Qin State. In 206 B.C., the short-lived Qin Empire was destroyed. Xiang Yu (项羽), a heroic general and leader, gave an region to Liu Bang (刘邦) who was one of the leaders of insurrectionists.
This story took place in the Western Han Dynasty. A man who lived in Chang’an had an enemy. This enemy wanted to avenge but he couldn’t get near the man. He heard the man’s wife was dutiful and benevolent. So he abducted her father and caused him to demand his daughter to be a contact. The woman thought if she refused, her father would be killed and she was not a dutiful daughter, but if she obeyed, her husband would be killed and she was not a faithful wife. If a person was not dutiful and faithful, this person had no face to live in the world.
Yue Yangzi (乐羊子) lived in the Henan (河南) Jun (郡) (where was in modern-day Henan Province) of the Eastern Han Dynasty. One day, he walked outside and saw a piece of gold on the road. He thought that someone lost it, but since no other one saw it, so he pocketed it with an overjoyed and nervous mind.
Li Ling (李陵) was a tragic character. He was the grandson of Li Guang (李广). Li Guang was a famous and respected general, but he met too many frustrations, and the emperor actually thought he was an inauspicious person. At last, after a failed military operation, Li Guang had to kill himself because he didn’t want to be humiliated. Li Ling was good at riding and shooting, and was kind to his followers, so he had good fame. Han Wu-Emperor (汉武帝), the fifth emperor of the Han Dynasty, thought he was valiant as his grandfather, and let him be a military officer.